بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Tuesday, 24th October 2017

Articles

Rajab - The Month of Allah

rajabThe Holy Prophet (SAW) has said

Rajab is the month of Allah, Sha’ban is my month and Ramadhan is the month of my followers.  Whoever keeps one fast during Rajab becomes entitled to the great pleasure of Allah, the wrath of Allah remains at bay from him and a gate of hell is closed for him.”

The Holy Prophet (SAW) has recommended the recitation of an important prayer, to be performed on the first Thursday of Rajab, which will give us the following benefits:

(i) Forgiveness of major sins

(ii) Safety from troubles of the first night in the grave, and shelter on the day of resurrection, after the Trumpet is blown.
 

The Holy Prophet (SAW) has also said that Rajab is the name of a river in heaven with water whiter than milk and sweeter than honey and whoever keeps one fast in the month of Rajab will drink from that river.

Imam Musa al-Kadhim (A) has said that whoever keeps one fast in the month of Rajab will be at a distant from the fire of Hell as would take one year’s journey to reach and whoever keeps three fasts becomes entitled to heaven.

Imam Jaffer As-Sadiq (A) has stated that the Holy Prophet (SAW) has said that Rajab is the month for seeking forgiveness of Allah and so the followers should be engrossed in prayer during that month as Allah is Merciful and Forgiving.

Common Amaal for the month of Rajab

General
To fast for 4 days is beneficial to save oneself from punishment in the grave.
Whoever fasts for six days in Rajab will find peace in Qiyamat and walk over the Pul-e-siraat easily without accounting.

1st of Rajab
Recite 10 Rakat Salaat on the 1st of Rajab such that in every Rakat after Surah al Hamd, recite Surah Tawheed 3 times. A person who prays this Namaaz will be saved from the squeeze of the grave.

Lailatul Raghaib & first Thursday of Rajab
It is related that the person who recites Surah-al Yaseen before going to bed and Salaatul Lailatul Raghaib will be saved from the terror of the grave. The first Thursday night of Rajab is known as Lailatul Raghaib. The Holy Prophet (SAW) used to fast on the first Thursday and between Maghrib and Isha, recite 12 Rakat salaat in six sets of 2 units.

In every Rakat after surah al Hamd recite 3 times Surah al-Qadr and 12 times Surah Ikhlas.

After salam recite 70 times: Allahumma s’ale a’laa muh’ammadin nabiyyil ummi wa a’laa aaleh.

Then go into sajdah and recite 70 times: Subbuh’un quddoos rabbul malaaaekate war-rooh’

Then sit up and say 70 times: Rabbighfir war-ham watajaawaz a’mma ta’lamo innaka antal a’liyyul a’zeem.

Then go into sajdah and say 70 times: Subbooh’un quddoos rabbul malaaekate war-rooh’.

Night of 7th Rajab
The Holy Prophet (SAW) says that if a person recites a 4 unit Salaat on the night of 7thRajab, (such that in each unit after Surah al Hamd recites Surat at Tawheed thrice, Surah al Falaq once, Surah an Naas once. After finishing namaaz recites Salwaat and 10 times Tasbeehate Arba’), Allah will offer him shelter under the Arsh and give him reward of a person fasting in the month of Ramdhan. Allah will ease the pangs of death on him and save him from squeezing in the grave. He will not die unless he sees his place in Paradise, and will be safe from the hardships of Qiyamat.

Middle of month and the nights of 16th & 17th Rajab
To recite 30 Rakat Salaat in the middle part of the month such that in each rakat after Surah al Hamd recite Sura Tawheed 10 times is beneficial to save oneself from punishment in the grave. In the same manner to recite the above Salaat on the nights of 16th and 17th Rajab is also beneficial

22nd Rajab
To recite the following 8 Rakat Salaat on the 22ndof Rajab is beneficial during death. In each Rakat after al Hamd , recite Surah Tawheed 7 times. After finishing the Salaat, recite salwaat 10 times and recite Astaghfirullah Rabbi wa atooboIlayh 10 times.

24th of Rajab
Fasting on the 24th of Rajab carries great reward. One of its merits is that the angel of death comes in the form of a handsome youth carrying a bowl of the pure drink (Sharaabe Tahoora) and offers it to the dying man. The dying person drinks it and dies in peace.

Last day of Rajab.
For the person who fasts on the last day of Rajab, Allah will save him from the after effects of death.

References

www.duas.org

English translation of Manazelul Akherah by Sheikh Abbas Qummi.

Mafatih-ul-Jinan by Sheikh Abbas Qummi (translated by Marhum Murtaza Ahmed Lakha)

Source: www.hujjat.org

Prophet Muhammad [SAWW]

muhammed

Muhammad (s.a.w) was born in such a family on Friday, the 17th Rabi'-ul-Awwal, 1st year of 'Amul-Fil (corresponding to 570 C.E.) to bring the Message of God to the world. In Sunni circles, 12th Rabi'-ul-Awwal is more famous. Thus, the prayer of Ibrahim while constructing the Ka'bah was granted:

Lord! And raise a Messenger from among them who shall recite to them Thine verses, and teach them the Book and the wisdom, and purify them, indeed Thou art the Mighty, the Wise (Qur'an, 2:129).

And the tidings of Christ came true:-

O Children of Israel! Surely, I am the messenger of Allah to you, verifying that which is before me of the Torah and giving the good news of a Messenger who will come after me whose name will be Ahmed. (Qur'an, 61:6)

'Abdullah, father of the Prophet, died a few month before (or two months after) his birth, and his grandfather 'Abdul­Muttalib took over the care and upbringing of the child. After a few months, according to the age-long custom of the Arabs, the child was entrusted to a bedouin woman Halimah by name, of the tribe of Bani-Sa'd, for his upbringing.

When he was only six years old, he lost his mother as well; so, the doubly-orphaned child was brought up by 'Abdul-Muttalib with the most tender care. It was the will of God that the Prophet to-be should undergo all the sufferings, pains and privations incidental to human life in order that he might learn to bear them with becoming fortitude and raise his stature in human perfection. Not two years had passed before 'Abdul-Muttalib also expired.

'Abdul-Muttalib died at the age of 82, leaving the care and custody of the orphaned Muhammad (s.a.w) to Abu Talib. Abu Talib and his wife, Fatimah Bint Asad, loved Muhammad more than their own children. As the Holy Prophet himself said, Fatima Bint Asad was his "mother" who kept her own children waiting while she fed the Holy Prophet, kept her own children cold while she gave him warm clothes. Abu Talib always kept the child with him day and night.

Abu Talib had succeeded 'Abdul-Muttalib in Siqayah and Rifadah and was an active participant in the trade caravans. When Muhammad (s.a.w) was 12 years old, Abu Talib bade farewell to his family to go to Syria. Muhammad (s.a.w) clung to him and cried. Abu Talib was so moved that he took the child with him. When the caravan reached Busra in Syria they, as usual, stayed near the monastery of a monk, Buhayra. It is not possible to give here the full account of that visit. Suffice it to say that the monk, seeing some of the signs, which he knew from the old books, was convinced that the orphan child was the last Prophet-to-be. To make sure, he started a conversation with him, and at one point said: "I give you oath of Lat and Uzza to tell me..." The child cried out: "Don't take the names of Lat and Uzza before me! I hate them!" Buhayra was now convinced. He advised Abu Talib not to proceed to Damascus "because if the Jews found out what I have seen, I am afraid they will try to harm him. For sure, this child is to have a great eminence."

Abu Talib, acting on this advice, sold all his merchandise for cheaper prices then and there, returning at once to Mecca.

Muhammad (s.a.w) marries Khadijah

Now, Muhammad (s.a.w) was old enough to go with the trade caravans. But Abu Talib's financial position had become very weak because of the expenses of Rifadah and Siqayah, and it was no longer possible for him to equip Muhammad (s.a.w) with the merchandise on his own. He, therefore, advised him to act as agent for a noble lady, Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, who was the wealthiest person in Quraish. It is written that in the trade caravans, her merchandise usually equaled the merchandise of the whole tribe put together.

Her genealogy joins with that of the Holy Prophet at Qusayi. She was Khadijah daughter of Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn 'Abdul-'Uzza ibn Qusayi.

The reputation which Muhammad (s.a.w) enjoyed for his honesty and integrity, led Khadijah to willingly entrust her goods to him for sale in Syria. He traded in such a way that the goods earned more profit than expected, and yet he was praised for his integrity, honesty and generosity. Khadijah was very much impressed. Only two months after his return to Mecca, he was married to Khadijah. He was twenty-five years of age and Khadijah was forty and a widow.

Reconstruction of the Ka'bah

In about 605 A.D., when the Holy Prophet was 35 years old, a flood swept Mecca and the building of the Ka'bah was badly damaged. The Quraish decided to rebuild it. When the walls reached a certain height, a dispute arose between various clans as to whom should the honor of placing the Black Stone (Hajar Aswad) in its place go. This dispute threatened to assume serious proportions but, at last, it was agreed upon that the first person to enter the precincts of the Ka'bah the next morning should arbitrate this issue.

It so happened, that first person was none other than Muhammad (s.a.w). The Quraish were pleased with the turn of the events because Muhammad was well recognized as the Truthful and Trust-worthy personality.

Muhammad (s.a.w) put his own robe on the ground and put the Black Stone on it. He told the disputing clans to send one representative each to hold the corners of the robe and to raise it. When the robe was raised to the required level, he took hold of the Stone and put it in its place. This was a judgement, which settled the dispute to the satisfaction of all the parties.

At this time, he had entered into several business partnerships and always acted with great integrity in his dealings with his partners. 'Abdullah, son of Abu Hamza, narrates that he had entered into a transaction with Muhammad (s.a.w). Its details had yet to be finalized when he had suddenly to leave promising that he would return soon. When, after three days, he went again to the spot, he found Muhammad (s.a.w) waiting for him. Muhammad (s.a.w) did not remonstrate with him. He just said that he had been there for all those three days waiting for him. Saib and Qays, who also had business transactions with him, testify to his exemplary dealings. People were so impressed by his uprightness and integrity, by the purity of his life, his unflinching fidelity, and his strict sense of duty that they called him "al-Amin," the trusted one.

Source: The Life of Muhammad The Prophet by Syed Saeed Akhtar Rizvi 

Source: www.hujjat.org

Imam Al Sajjad [as]

emame_sajjad_32

Name: 'Ali.
Title: Zaynu'l-'Abidln.
Agnomen: Abu Muhammad.
Father's name: al-Husayn Sayyidu 'sh-Shuhada'.
Mother's name: Shahr Banu, daughter of Yazdeger III, the King of Persia.
Birth: In Medina, 5th Shaaban 38 AH.
Death: Died at the age of 58, in Medina; poisoned by al-Walid ibn 'Abdi 'I-Malik ibn Marwan on 25th Muharram 95 AH; buried in Jannatu 'I-Baqi', in Medina.

The holy Imam 'Ali Zaynu'l -'Abidin is the Fourth Apostolic Imam. His epithet was Abu Muhammad and was popularly titled as "Zaynu'l-'Abidin". The mother of this Holy Imam was the royal personage, Shahr Banu, the daughter of King Yazdgerd, the last pre-Islamic Ruler of Persia. Imam Zaynu'l-'Abidin spent the first two years of his infancy in the lap of his grandfather 'All ibn Abi Talib and then for twelve years he had the gracious patronage of his uncle, the second Holy Imam al-Hasan ibn 'All.

In 61 AH, he was present in Karbala', at the time of the gruesome tragedy of the wholesale massacre of his father, his uncles, his brothers, his cousins and all the godly comrades of his father; and suffered a heartless captivity and imprisonment at the hands of the devilish forces of Yazid. When Imam Husayn had come for the last time to his camp to bid goodbye to his family, 'Ali Zaynu'l-'Abidin was lying semiconscious in his sickbed and hence he escaped the massacre in Karbala'. Imam Husayn could only manage a very brief talk with the inmates of his camp and departed nominating his sick son as Imam.

The Holy Imam Zaynu'l-'Abidin lived for about thirty-four years after his father and all his life he passed in prayers and supplication to Allah and in remembrance of his martyred father. It is for his ever being in prayers to Allah, mostly lying in prayerful prostration, that this Holy Imam was popularly called "Sajjad". The knowledge and piety of this Holy Imam was matchless.

Az-Zuhri, Al-Waqid; and Ibn 'Uyaynah say that they could not find any one equal to him in piety and godliness. He was so mindful of Allah that whenever he sat for ablution for prayers, the complexion of his face would change and when he stood at prayer his body was seen trembling.

When asked why this was, he replied, "Know ye not before whom I stand in prayer, and with whom I hold discourse?"
Even on the gruesome day of 'Ashura when Yazid's forces had massacred his father, his kith and kin and his comrades and had set fire to the camp, this Holy Imam was engrossed in his supplications to the Lord. When the brutal forces of Yazid's army had taken the ladies and children as captives, carrying them seated on the bare back of the camels, tied in ropes; this Holy Imam, though sick, was put in heavy chains with iron rings round his neck and his ankles, and was made to walk barefooted on the thorny plains from Karbala' to Kufah and to Damascus; and even then this godly soul never was unmindful of his prayers to the Lord and was always thankful and supplicative to Him.

His charity was unassuming and hidden. After his passing away, the people said that hidden charity ended with the departure of this Holy Imam. Like his grand-father 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, 'Ali Zaynu'l-'Abidin used to carry on his own back at night bags of flour and bread for the poor and needy families in Medina and he so maintained hundred of poor families in the city.

The Holy Imam was not only hospitable even to his enemies but also used to continually exhort them to the right path. Imam Zaynu 'l-'Abidin along with the Ahlu 'I-Bayt passed through dreadful and very dangerous times, for the aggressions and atrocities of the tyrant rulers of the age had reached a climax. There was plunder, pillage, and murder everywhere. The teachings of Islam were observed more in their breach. The heartless tyrant al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf ath-Thaqaf; was threatening every one who professed allegiance or devotion to the Ahlu 'I-Bayt; and those caught were mercilessly put to death. The movement of the Holy Imam was strictly restricted and his meeting with any person was totally banned. Spies were employed to trace out the adherents of the Ahlu 'I-Bayt. Practically every house was searched and every family scrutinized.

Imam Zaynu 'l-'Abidin was not given the time to offer his prayers peacefully, nor could he deliver any sermons. This God's Vicegerent on earth therefore, adopted a third course which proved to be very beneficial to his followers. This was in compiling supplicative prayers for the daily use of man in his endeavour to approach the Almighty Lord. The invaluable collection of his edited prayers are known as as-Sahifah al-Kdmilah or As-Sahifah as-Sajjddiyyah; it is known also as Az-Zabur (Psalm) of Al Muhammad The collection is an invaluable treasury of wonderfully effective supplications to the Lord in inimitably beautiful language. Only those who have ever come across those supplications would know the excellence and the beneficial effect of these prayers. Through these prayers the Imam gave all the necessary guidance to the faithful during his seclusion. On the 25th of Muharram 95 AH when he was in Medina, al-Walid ibn 'Abdi 'l-Malik ibn Marwan, the then ruler got this Holy Imam martyred by poison. The funeral prayers for this Holy Imam were conducted by his son the Fifth Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir and his body was laid to rest in the cemetery of Jannatu 'l-Baqi' in Medina.

Allamah Tabatabai writes:

Imam Sajjad ('Ali ibn al-Husayn entitled Zaynu'l-'Abidin and Sajjad) was the son of the Third Imam and his wife, the queen among women, the daughter of Yazdgerd the King of Iran. He was the only son of Imam Husayn to survive, for his other three brothers 'Ali Akbar, aged twenty-five, five-year-old Ja'far and 'Ali al-Asghar (or 'Abdullah) who was a suckling baby were martyred during the event of Karbala'. The Imam had also accompanied his father on the journey that terminated fatally in Karbala', but because of severe illness and the inability to carry arms or participate in fighting he was prevented from taking part in the holy war and being martyred. So he was sent with the womenfolk to Damascus. After spending a period in imprisonment he was sent with honour to Medina because Yazid wanted to conciliate public opinion. But for a second time, by the order of the Umayyad caliph, 'Abdu 'l-Malik, he was chained and sent from Medina to Damascus and then again returned to Medina. The Fourth Imam, upon returning to Medina, retired from public life completely, closed the door of his house to strangers and spent his time in worship. He was in con- tact only with the elite among the Shi'ites such as Abu Hamzah ath-Thumali, Abu Khalid Kabuli and the like. The elite disseminated among the Shi'ah the religious sciences they learned from the Imam. In this way Shi'ism spread considerably and showed its effects during the Imamate of the Fifth Imam. Among the works of the Fourth Imam is a book called Sahifah Sajjadiyyah. It consists of fifty-seven prayers concerning the most sublime Divine sciences and is known as "The Psalm of the Household of the Prophet."

Some of the sayings of Al-Imam 'Ali ibn al-Husayn, (A):

• Refrain from lying in all things, big or small, in seriousness or in jest. For when one starts lying in petty matters, soon he will have the audacity to lie in important matters (also).

• A man need not fear Allah except on account of his own sins, and should place his hopes only with his Lord.

• When about something one does not know, one should not be ashamed of having to learn about it.

• Patience is to faith what the head is to the body; one who does not have patience also lacks faith.

• Once, one of his companions complained to him that out of jealousy some people whom he had served very well were treating him badly. The Imam gave him some advice which was:

• Guard your tongue and do not speak about people whatever comes out of your mouth, otherwise you will turn your friends into your enemies.

• Avoid saying things which the minds of people are not prepared to accept.

• He who does not have wisdom will be ruined by the a smallest thing (Mistake).

• What harm will come to you if you take all Muslims to be your family and your relations? Consider your elders to be your parents, those younger than you as your children and those of your age as your brothers. If you do so who is going to harm or abuse you?

• Whenever a thought comes in your mind that you are better than any other person, then think along these lines:

• If the person is older than you then remind yourself that this person is better than you in matters of Islam because he has done more good deeds than you have.

• If the person is younger than you then remind yourself that this person is better than you because he has committed less sins than you have.

• If he is of your age than your argument should be: he is better than you in matters of Islam since you know of your own sins but not of his.

• If people show respect to you, think that this is because the people are very good not that you are good. If the people say bad things about you, think that something is really wrong with you. If you live in this way, life will become pleasant for you, you will make many friends and your enemies will be few.

• Do not have relationship with, nor talk with nor give company to 5 types of people:

• The Liar: because they are like mirage: With their words they show things different from what they really are. What is near they make it look far and what is far they make it look near. In this way, they take you away from truth.
• The Greedy and the Sinner: because you cannot rely on their friendship; for a small piece of food or even less than that, they will sell you.

• The Miser: because they will let you down when you need them most.

• The Fool: because even when they try to do you good, they will end you in difficulties.

• Those Who have cut relationship with their relatives, because Allah has cursed them in the Qur'an.

• Try to earn a high position in Paradise (Jannah). Remember: Highest positions will be given to those who have been most useful to their brothers in faith and who have been most helpful to the needy.

• Remember: There are times when a person says but one good sentence and that brings him very near to Allah and brings his freedom on the Day of Judgement.

• Never think that what you do for your brother in faith is unimportant because these are the things that will be of much use to you on a day when nothing else will be of any use.

• Drinking (Alcohol and other forbidden drinks) and Gambling are such sins that they destroy the power to stop committing other sins.

• (Speaking) Good words increase a person's wealth and sustenance (Rizk), prolong his life, make him to be loved by his wife and children and take him to paradise.

 

Article copied from Facebook posting by Sh. Jehad Ismail on Facebook.

Source: www.hujjat.org

Shahadat Imam Hassan [as]

funeral of imam hassan by mustafa20-d5ooqan

When asked what piety is, Imam Hassan (A) replied, "yearning for virtue and not longing for this world."

When asked what generosity is, Imam Hassan (A) replied, "donation before request and feeding people during drought."

When asked what dignity is, Imam Hassan (A) replied, "agreeing with friends and maintaining good neighbourly relations."

 

 

Imam Hassan's (A) Caliphate

On the 21st night of the Ramadan of 40th Hijra his father Hazrat Ali ibn-e-Abi Talib (A) passed away making all the people sorrowful and grieved. Imam Hassan (A) who was 27 years of age came along with the people to the mosque and climbed the tribune and said, "Last night, a man, who was unique in knowledge piety, conduct and character among the previous ages people as well those to come in future, has gone out of you. He participated the battles along with the Prophet Muhammad (saw) and strived hard to guard Islam. A person who was the thorn of the eyes of the enemies and the fruit of the heart of friends. And he did not spare and accumulate anything from the wealth of the world for himself, except for seven hundred Dirhams by which he wanted to provide a servant for his family."

At this moment, the Imam (A) wept bitterly and the people too wept. Then he spoke about himself. So that the people may know that the Imamate has been handed over to him and that people might not go astray and did not get misled. He said, "I am the son of the Prophet Muhammad (saw), Ali (A) and Fatima (A). I am the flame of the lighted lamp of Prophet hood. The families from which God has driven the dirt, contamination and pollution away.

Then Abdullah Ibn-e-Abbas stood up and said "Oh people this is the son of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) and your Imam, beware, that he is the right heir and successor of Hazrat Ali (a.s.). So take the oath of allegiance and loyalty for him".

People moved in shape of groups towards Imam Hassan (A) and took the oath of allegiance for him. Imam Hassan (A) made it a condition that they would fight anyone against whom he fought and whenever he deemed it fit to make peace, they would also accept it. All of them accepted it, and willingly agreed and submitted to his Imamate.

The Conspiracies of Muawiyah


Muawiyah had established a government and dominion in Syria and for years he had played tricks with cunning ways and means against Hazrat Ali (A). He killed the friends of Hazrat Ali (A) and brought into existence the perverted group and sect of Khwaraj Now, when he heard that people, after the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali (A), took oath of allegiance to elect Imam Hassan (A) for the caliphate post as the successor of the Prophet Muhammad (saw). This thing was very hard for him to tolerate. He sent spies to Kufa and Basra to find out and get him informed about what was going on. And thereafter, they may plot and hatch conspiracies against Imam (A) if they deem fit and suitable they might start subversion and sabotage and create chaos, and disorder.

Imam Hassan (A) gave the order that the spies should be arrested and killed. Then he wrote a letter to Muawiyah: "Oh Muawiyah! You send spies and set your hands upon subversion? I presume that you intend to fight a war and you like war. If it is so, then I am also ready for it and the war is at hand. Do wait "Insha Allah".

Muawiyah! I am surprised over you that you are the candidate for a job, which you don't deserve and are not worthy for it. Neither you have any superiority in the religion nor you have left any good effect, mark or impression from yourself as a monument and memorial. Muslims have taken oath of allegiance for me (caliphate). It would be to the interest and benefit of Islam that you too accept this act (caliphate) like the rest of the Muslims. Oh Muawiyah! Do not move the untrue and illusive (Batil) ahead, and you also take the oath and allegiance of faithfulness to me like the others, and do consider the blood of the Muslims respect worthy. If you do not accept my advice and wish to create disorder and chaos and spill the blood of Muslim I will quickly attack you along with the other Muslims, and will put you on trial.


Muawiyah in reply to the Imam Hassan (A) wrote:

In the same way as Abu Bakr, due to his experience and expertise took the caliphate from Hazrat Ali (A), I am more deserving than you and have more experience and it is better that you be my follower so that you get the caliphate after myself, and I will give you, whatever is the income of Iraq.

Muawiyah not only denied and turned his face from taking the oath of allegiance, he also sent spies to kufa to martyr the Imam Hassan (A). Thus the Imam Hassan (a.s.) was forced to wear armored Jacket under his clothes and then stand for offering the prayers. Once when one of the agents of Muawiyah threw an arrow towards him the arrow got ineffective due to the armored Jacket and so the Imam Hassan (A) remained safe.

War Begins

It did not take long that Muawiyah, on the pretext of bringing into effect Islamic unity, gathered a huge army and mobilized it to fight the Imam in Iraq. When the news of the movement of Muawiyah's army reached the Imam Hassan (A), he invited the people to the mosque. He climbed the tribune and after the praise of God and the salutation to the holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) said, "Muawiyah has moved towards Iraq along with his army. It is your turn to get ready for the war and defend your honor and religion." But those despicable, vanquished and comfort loving people did not give a response to Imam (A). Adi Ibn-e-Hatim stood up from among the people and very sadly addressed them saying, "What kind of people are you. What does this dead silence mean? Why do you not reply to the Imam Hassan (A) and the son of your Prophet Muhammad (saw)? Are you not afraid of subject and suffering? Be afraid of God's anger and torment and chastise and obey the order of your Imam Hassan (A). Get up and manly press your weapon in your hands and defend your honor, respect and religion. So that the God and Imam (A) are pleased with you.

These words alerted a group so they announced their readiness to take part in the battle. Adi Ibn-e-Hatim told the Imam (A), "We are ready and waiting for your order." Imam Hassan (A) said, "I am proceeding towards the Nakheela Camp and whosoever is prepared and willing may go to that place, although I know that you will not practice upon your promise and Muawiyah will deceive you.

Disobeying the Imam Hassan (A)

When Imam Hassan (A) reached most of those who were shouting the slogans of "war", "war" were not present there and had gone back and turned their back upon the promise they had made with him. Because those who had participated were comprised of:

1. Khawarij who had come to fight against Muawiyah and not for the sake of obeying the command of Imam Hassan (A).

2. Those materialist and world adorers and greedy ones who were after the war booty.

3. Those who had participated for the sake of accompanying and following their tribal chiefs and not due to any religious inspiration.

This is the reason Imam Hassan (A) addressed them saying, "You betrayed me, like you had betrayed my father, who was your Imam before me. I don't know whether you will fight siding with Imam or someone who absolutely does not believe in God and His Prophet Muhammad (saw).

Then he selected a man named Hakam as the army commander and put four thousand men under his command so that he moves to the city of Ambaar and stays there and applies restraint to the forces of Muawiyah till getting further orders. But Muawiyah deceived him by giving him money and making false promises. And he joined his army along with his two hundred men.

Imam (A) selected another man from the tribe of Bani Murad as his successor and said, "Although I do not have trust upon you. But this is a trial, you may also proceed."

When Muawiyah came to know about his arrival, he sent his delegates with five thousand Dirhams for him and promised to give him a governorship. He was too deceived by Muawiyah and joined him.

Imam Hassan's (A) Grief

When the news of the joining of tribal chiefs with Muawiyah reached the Imam Hassan (A). He was much affected and shocked and said, "Did I not say several times that you do not have any faithfulness and trustworthiness, and your conduct with me is that of artifice, and cunningness? He then decided to gather an army himself and move. By the efforts of his friends nearly four thousand men gathered. Imam (A) along with "Sabaat" went to Madayan and sent twelve thousand men under the command of Obaidullah bin Abbas and his helper Qais bin Saad, as a file leader and fore runner to meet and resist Muawiyah, so as to test their spirit and strength of devotedness. Muawiyah sent his agents along with one million Dirhams among the forces of Imam Hassan (A) to get Qais deceived but Qais did not yield to his desire and answered them, "tell Muawiyah you cannot take my faith from me and I will not desert and leave Imam by any of your artifices and frauds."

The agents who got disappointed by Qais and went towards the real Commander Obaidullah bin Abbas and lured and deceived him and he along with a group of his followers joined Muawiyah at the nighttime. When the army men of Imam Hassan (A) became commander less, Qais took over the Command and lead the Jamaat prayers. Qais was fighting fiercely and ferociously and had made Muawiyah harassed and fearful. As a result, he sent a few spies among the army men of Qais, so that they may make this propaganda that Imam Hassan (a.s.) has entered into peace treaty with Muawiyah and you are fighting for no reason. By this way Muawiyah succeeded in separating and detaching the group of Khawarij from the Imam's forces and in deceiving them to attack the Imam Hassan (A) and what he desired did materialize.

The Rioter Khawarij

This stupid and silly group did believe in what spies of Muawiyah told them and disobeyed the orders of Imam Hassan (A) and they raised a hew and cry that Imam Hassan (A) had also become an infidel like his father (Maaz-Allah) and had joined hand with Muawiyah. Suddenly, a platoon attacked the tent of Imam Hassan (A) and looted whatever they found, to the extent that they even pulled out the carpet of Imam Hassan (A) from beneath him.

Imam Hassan (A) was forced to leave that place and he rode upon horse and a group of his friends were all around him. One of them (the attackers) rushed out of his hiding place and injured the Imam Hassan (A). Imam Hassan (A) was carried to one of his friend's house and provided medical care and treatment. It came to that, most of his governors, secretly and confidentially, wrote letters to Muawiyah saying we are at your command and disposal as soon as possible come to Iraq, we will arrest the Imam Hassan (A) and hand him over to you. Muawiyah sent all those letters to Imam Hassan (A) along with a covering letter saying, "These people did not remain faithful to your father and they will not remain on your side either. I am ready to sign a pact with you and overlook the war.

Why Imam Hassan (A) accepted the Truce?

The adventurer Khawarij and the dishonest friends of Imam Hassan (A) made it inevitable for the Imam Hassan (A) to accept truce with Muawiyah. But truce did not mean that Imam Hassan (A) colluded and put up with Muawiyah and agreed to his cruel and brutal activities. But it meant to make a no war pact with Muawiyah for a certain period. Because, if Muawiyah became victorious he would had smashed and destroyed all the hopes of Islam and would have destroyed the foundation of Islam and killed all the true Muslims. Besides, the Roman Empire was seeking a chance to attack the Islamic lands, and this mutual difference of Muslims was the best opportunity for it. Thus Imam Hassan (A) who was smoldering with pain spoke to his untrue and unfaithful friends, "I know that you would practice craftiness and artifice, a group who do not have neither shame nor religion have unconditionally handed themselves over to Muawiyah, woe to you, By God, Muawiyah will not fulfill his commitments. I wanted to establish for you the religion of the right but you did not help me. You started moving on the path of opposition and confrontation and committed dishonesty with me, which forced and obliged me to sign the treaty. By God, if I had friends and helpers I would not have surrendered the work to Muawiyah because, I consider the caliphate to be prohibited for Bani Ommayide. You will soon taste the bitterness of the conduct of Muawiyah, day and night. After the Imam Hassan (A) was forced to make truce with Muawiyah, he wrote a letter to him saying, "I wanted to revive the right and put an end to rescinded and vanity and establish the ruler ship of God and the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) but people did not agree and accompany me. Now, I am making a truce with you upon the conditions, which I know that you will not fulfill and comply with. But soon you would repent, but that will be a time when it will not be of benefit to you.

Then, he sent his cousin Abdullah Bin Harris to see Muawiyah so that he should get him committed upon the conditions, which he had presented after a negotiation with him, and write down the agreement, and treaty of truce.

A part of the truce treaty is as under: -

1. The blood of the Shias must remain respect worthy and their rights must not be confiscated and crushed.

2. Filthy language must not be used against Hazrat Ali (A) and his Shias.

3. Muawiyah should practice upon the Book of God (The Quran) and the Sunnah of Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw).

4. The friends and companions of Imam Hassan (A) must remain safe and secure from his mischief's and brutalities wherever they live and no one has the right to resist them.

5. Imam Hassan (A) does not call Muawiyah, Ameerul Momineen and will not take his name in the Khutbas (sermons).

6. Muawiyah must not hand over the caliphate to anybody after himself.

The Breaking of the Pact

After the peace pact was conducted, Muawiyah focused his attention upon Kufa and held the Juma prayer congregation at Nakheela. He evidently and clearly said in his Jumma speach "Oh people I did not fight against you so that you should offer your prayers and keep fast, instead, it was for the reason that I rule over you although you do not like it. I will crush all the conditions of truce pact conducted with Hassan bin Ali (A) under my feet. But the conduct of Muawiyah in certain matters showed that he was strongly embarrassed and harassed due to the influence of Imam Hassan (A) so that sometimes he was obliged to put into practice few of the points of the peace pact.

So that once when Ibn-e-Ziad the governor of Kufa followed and chased (to punish) one of the friends of Imam (A), Imam Hassan (A) wrote about the incident to Muawiyah, who at once reprimanded Ibn-e-Ziad about this event.

Finally Muawiyah Decided to make Yazeed his successor:

But the pact, which he had signed with Imam Hassan (A), stopped him from this act. He decided to poison the Imam Hassan (A) so that the way to the succession of his son Yazeed should become open and clear. And then make the people forcibly take oath of allegiance (for Yazeed's). Therefore, he contacted "Jodah bint Asash" the wife of Imam Hassan (A) and deceived by luring her and sent a poison for her, with the message that if you make your husband take this poison you will get a prize of one hundred thousand Dirhams from me. Besides, I will select you as the wife of Yazeed and you will become the wife of the caliph of Muslims.

The dishonest hand poisoned the Imam's Utensil (food)

Imam Hassan (A), the womanly scruples regarding the money and fame blinded the eyes of the wife of Imam Hassan (A) and made her accept the suggestion of the cunning fox and commit such a dishonesty which history will never forget. Although Imam Hassan (A) had said several times that I will get martyred by my wife. And people had requested him that if it is so then divorce her and turn her out of your house. But Imam Hassan (A) replied, "She has not yet committed any crime and if I turn her out of the house, I would not have done a right thing. Because, she will make this step an excuse and will say, Imam has turned me out of his house without any fault. So that by this means she may cover her crime up and show her work as correct. Beware; Muawiyah will not let me go. If I leave my wife, even then she will not abandon her dishonesty except this that she will carry her program forward under the cover of her being oppressed."

Finally on the 7th day of Safar, 50th Hijrah when the weather was extremely hot and the Imam Hassan (A) was fasting, Jodah bint Asash, poisoned his milk pot and presented to him for breaking the fast.

Imam Hassan (A) drank a portion of the poisonous milk and then addressed her, "Oh the enemy of God and Prophet Muhammad (saw) you have killed me. God kill you. By God, you and Muawiyah both will become abject, despised and helpless." And the same happened as he had foretold, and predicted. Jodah bint Asash was turned out of Muawiyah's court with humility and not very long had passed that she died. And Muawiyah too died of a terrible life taking pain."

Imam Hassan (A) passed away having faced pain and discomfort. And was buried in the graveyard of Baqi in Medina. God and Prophet's blessings be upon his pure soul.

Reference:

An introduction to fourth infallible Hazrat Imam Hassan (AS), http://www.ezsoftech.com/stories

 

Source: www.hujjat.org

Shame Gharibaan

shame20ghariban203

And what a night it was for the daughters of the Messenger of Allah (S) whom lofty eminence never forsook ever since they were born! It was only yesterday that they lived in the pavilions of greatness and the chambers of dignity, lit during the day by the sun of Prophethood and during the night by the star of caliphate and by the lanterns emitting the radiance of sanctity. During this night, they were left in the pitch dark, having lost those shining lights, their belongings plundered, their chambers burnt, fear overwhelming them.

They remained among the corpses of those who used to be their protectors. Now they have neither protectors nor defenders. They do not know anyone who could defend them if they were to be attacked, or who would repel those who might terrorize them, or who would calm and pacify those who have lost their loved ones. Yes, there were among them children crying in anguish There were mothers of children waned by the arrows, sisters of those who were martyred, mothers who lost their sons. And they were mourning their dear ones.

 

Next to them were body parts amputated, corpses slashed and cut, necks covered with blood. And they were in a desolate desert... Behind the low marshes stood the army of treachery savouring its “victory”: the recklessness of winners and the meanness of vanquishers. Besides all of this, they did not know what the morning would bring them and what the caller would announce. Will he announce their slaughter, or will they be taken captive? None other than the ailing Imam (‘a) could defend them, had he only been able to defend himself against the danger of being killed.

A nurse set out to suckle her infant
With feelings that caused her infant to die of patience.
She saw his cradle, with grief after him overflowing,
And it used to overflow with happiness.
And her breast with her pure milk is weighed
For her infant used to overflow.
Swiftly to the infant's resting place did she go,
Perhaps she would find in him some life so he would suckle,
But she only saw a corpse at a slaughter place,
In it an arrow rested that killed the neck,
So she yearned and over him knelt
With her ribs to shade him from the heat.
She hugged him, though dead,
And from his spilled blood she dyed her chest.
And she wished, having seen his cheeks covered with blood
That with his arrow her own cheeks were split.
Over his grave she poured her heart
With feelings overflowing.
She now eulogizes him with the best of verse.
She sings lullabies once and once she
Hugs his corpse that decorated the pearls.
And she often kneels down and sniffs
Where his neck was slit and then kisses him again,
So how miserable you are and how bereaved
With the like of your tears did al-Khansa’ mourn Sakhr!
Of her emotions and yearnings she had that day
A cage for eternity from which the bird had flown away...
[806]

Vexation overwhelmed the world of the domain and of the unseen; the huris in the chambers of Paradise were crying, and so were the angels in the strata between the heavens, as the jinns mourned. [807]

Ibn Abul-Hadid says, “‘Ubaydullah Ibn Ziyad built four mosques in Bara to disseminate hatred towards ‘Ali Ibn Abu Talib (‘a).” [808]

This is not how to reward Allah's Messenger
O nation of oppression and corruption!
Had the Messenger of Allah lived after him,
He would have today mourned him exceedingly.

Umm Salamah saw the Messenger of Allah (S) in a vision [809] with his hair looking quite untidy, dusty, with earth soil on his head. She asked him, “O Messenger of Allah! Why do I see your hair looking so untidy and dusty?” “My son,” he (S) said, “has been killed, and I have not yet finished digging his grave and those of his companions.” [810]

She woke up terrified and looked at the bottle containing a specimen of the soil of Karbala'. She found it boiling in blood. [811] It was the bottle given to her by the Prophet (S) who ordered her to keep it. Moreover, she heard in the depth of the night a caller mourning al-Husain (‘a) saying

O killers of al-Husain out of ignorance
Receive the news of your torture and annihilation.
The son of David had cursed you
And so did Moses and the man of the Gospel.
All the people of the heavens condemn you
Every prophet, every messenger, and every martyr.
[812]

In fact, she heard in the depth of the night other voices mourning al-Husain (‘a) but could not see them. Among the poetry she had heard was the following:

O eyes! This is a day for your tears
So cry hard and spare not.
Who after me shall the martyrs mourn
Over folks led by their fates
To a tyrant in the reign of slaves?
[813]

On the day of ‘Ashura, Ibn ‘Abbas saw the Messenger of Allah (S) in a vision with his hair looking very untidy, and he was holding a bottle of blood. He said to him, “May my parents be sacrificed for your sake! What is this?!” “This is the blood of al-Husain (‘a) and of his companions;” he said, adding, “I have been collecting it, and I have not yet finished doing so.” [814]

They kept al-Husain's naked corpse on the ground for three days although he was the essence of existence itself, being part of the Prophet (S) who is the cause of all causes, the one whose light was derived from the holiest light of the Most Holy One. Three days saw nothing but pitched darkness, [815] and the nights were even more so. [816]

People thought that Doomsday had dawned. [817] Stars appeared at midday. [818] And they kept colliding with one another. [819] The rays of the sun could not be seen, [820] and all this continued for three long days. [821]

Nobody should be surprised at seeing the light of the sun diminishing during the period when the master of the youths of Paradise was left naked on the ground, for he is the cause in the cosmos running due to what you have come to know of his being derived from the very truth of Muhammad (S), the truth which is the cause of all causes and the first reason. It is due to the tradition, which confirms the same, and which is related to how the responsibility of wilaya was offered to everything in existence: whoever accepted it would surely benefit therefrom, and whoever refused would be deprived.

If the talk about the cosmos undergoing some change on account of the birth of a great prophet till the heavens are filled with clouds, and that it rained when a Christian scholar at Surra-man-Ra'a [Samarra’] [822] prayed for rain, although he did not uncover the body of the prophet [but only a bone of whose body he was holding], nor were his limbs cut off; so, how could it not undergo a change, or why should not the sunlight or the moonlight not be obliterated when the [corpse of the] Master of the Youths of Paradise was left on the ground after being mutilated?

Why did not the heavens when he was killed not collide?
Why did the earth when he fell not crack?
I after him excuse the moon of the morn
If it does not appear, and if the sun does not shine.
And the comet if let loose and their clouds, too,
If they departed, and if the beasts do not graze,
And the water if not pure and the trees
If they do not blossom, and the birds
If they do not sing at all,
And the wind if it does not blow
Except becoming storms and gales
And water shall I never drink near him
But stay grieved, heart-rent.
May the foes shoot my heart with a fateful blow
If what the most Exalted Glory did would not let me grieve so.
Borne on a bare and lean hump stayed,
If I ever forget how his offspring were conveyed
. [823]

Yes! The condition of everything changed, and all beings were altered. The wild beasts mourned him with tears in their eyes. The Commander of the Faithful (‘a) has said, “By my parents! Al-Husain (‘a) will be killed in the outskirts of Kufa. It is as if I can see the wild beasts stretching their necks on his grave mourning him all night long till the morning.” [824]And it rained blood. [825] Water urns and jars and every other container was filled with blood.[826] For a long time did its stain remain on houses and walls. [827] Whenever a stone was removed, blood was found underneath it, [828] even in Jerusalem.[829]

When the head was brought into the governor's mansion, the mansion's walls dripped blood[830] and a fire broke out from a number of its walls. That fire ran in the direction of ‘Ubaydullah Ibn Ziyad who, noticing it, ordered those who were in his company to keep what they had seen to themselves. [831] He fled away from it. It was then that the holy head spoke loudly saying, “Where are you running to, O cursed one?! If it does not reach you in this life, the Fire shall be your abode in the hereafter.” The head kept speaking till the fire was out. Everyone in the mansion was amazed. [832]

For two or three months did the people see the walls stained with blood at sunrise and at sunset. [833] Another incident is that of a raven stained with the blood of al-Husain (‘a). It flew to Medina and fell on the walls of the house where Fatima, the youngest daughter of al-Husain (‘a), was living at the time. She used this incident as a theme in mourning the killing of her father [before its news reached Medina] (‘a). When she mourned him to the people of Medina, they said, “Here she is reviving the witchcraft of ‘Abd al-Muttalib's offspring!”

It was not long before the news of his martyrdom came. This is narrated by the most eloquent among all the orators of Khawarizm, namely Ahmad Ibn Mekki [al-Khawarizmi] who died in 568 A.H/1173 A.D. as we read on p. 92, Vol. 2, of his book Maqtal al-Husain. This coincident should not surprise anyone especially when we come to know the fact that al-Husain (‘a) had another daughter besides Fatima and Sukayna.

Al-Husain's martyrdom was surrounded with super-natural events. It is as though the Almighty, the most Exalted One, wanted then to inform the nation, as well as the succeeding generations, to be acquainted with this epic the like of which has never been witnessed. He wanted to inform them about the extent of cruelty of the Umayyads in dealing with Abu ‘Abdullah, the man who sacrificed his all for the sake of the Divine Call. This implies attracting everyone's attention to the status al-Husain (‘a) enjoys with Allah, and that his killing will refute all misguidance and will herald the revival of the creed, the survival of which was desired by the Lord of the World, till the Day the dead shall be resurrected.

Du’bal al-Khuza’i narrated a story that he traces back to his grandfather thus:

His mother, Su’da daughter of Malik al-Khuza’i, was alive and aware of the fact that a tree belonging to the mother of Ma’bid al-Khuza’i [834] had long been dead. The Prophet (S) happened to make his ablution there and he poured the left-overs of his ablution water under that tree. Through such a blessing, the tree was brought back to life: it became green once more, and its produce was quite bountiful. When the Prophet (S) died, its produce decreased a great deal, and when the Commander of the Faithful (‘a) was killed, all its fruit fell at once on the ground. People continued to use its leaves as a medicine. After some time, they looked at it and noticed how its trunk was literally bleeding. They were terrified for having seen something nobody else had ever seen. When the night brought the mantle of its darkness, they heard someone weeping and wailing without seeing anyone at all. They heard another voice saying:

O martyr, and martyr is his uncle, too
The best of uncles, Ja’far at-Tayyar
Strange how a polished one dared to hit you
On the face, and dust had covered you.

It was not long after having witnessed such an odd phenomenon that news came of the killing of al-Husain (‘a). Du’bal al-Khuza’i dedicated three lines of poetry complementing the above wherein he said,

Visit the best of graves in Iraq
And disobey the ass, for whoever forbade you is an ass
Why should I not visit you, O Husain?
May my life be sacrificed for you,
And may my people and everyone to me dear.
All do not at all with you compare,
For you there is love in the hearts of the wise
Your foe is annihilated; him do we despise.
[835]

The meaning of the second line was borrowed by a Shi’a poet of old and reworded in three lines [the rough translation of which runs thus]:

How strange should a sword blow be dealt to you
On the day when dust high and wide flew!
And strange how arrows snatched you from the ladies
Who called upon your grandfather with tears abundant.
Why did not someone the arrows break?
Should your holy and exalted body them overtake?
[836]

In fact, anyone who touched the sassafran which had been plundered [from Husain's family] was burnt thereby and reduced to ashes. The taste of the meat of the camels which they had looted was more bitter than that of colocynth, and they saw fire coming out of it.[837]

Nobody had ever seen the sky turning red except on the day when al-Husain (‘a) was killed.[838] Ibn al-Jawzi has said,

“Whenever anyone among the people was angry, anger left permanent physical marks on his face. Since the Truth, Exalted is He, is far above having a physical form to manifest to people, He manifested His wrath for the killing of al-Husain (‘a) through the redness of the horizon on account of the magnanimity of the crime committed... The Prophet (S) could not sleep as he heard the moaning of his uncle, al-’Abbas Ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, who had been taken captive and who was tied during the battle of Badr; so, what would his condition have been had he heard the moaning of al-Husain (‘a)? When Washi, Hamzah's killer, embraced Islam, the Prophet (S) said to him, “Get your face away from my sight, for I do not like to see the killer of my loved ones.” This was so despite the fact that Islam wipes out whatever sins one had committed prior to accepting the faith; so, what would his condition have been had he seen the person who killed his [grand]son and who transported his family on camels’ bare humps?”[839]

Yes! The [soul of the] Messenger of Allah (S) did, indeed, attend and witness the huge host which was bent on eradicating his family from the face of earth, and he saw the wailing of the orphans and the sobbing of the ladies who had lost their loved ones, and he heard the cries of the children because of thirst. In fact, the army heard a thunderous voice saying, “Woe unto you, O people of Kufa! I see the Messenger of Allah (S) eying you, once looking at you, and once looking at the heavens, holding his holy beard!” But the desires and the misguidance that have taken control of the souls of that greedy host inspired to them that it was just “a mad man” [who was calling]. The crowd among them shouted, “Let it not frighten you!” Abu ‘Abdullah, Imam as-Sadiq (‘a), used to say, “I do not think that that voice came from anyone another than Gabriel.” [840]

Some angels shouted, “O nation that has become confused and misguided after its Prophet! May Allah never accept your Adha nor Fitr [Eid] prayers!” Imam as-Sadiq (‘a) has said, “By Allah! There is no doubt at all that they were not successful, nor will they ever be, till a revolutionary rises for [the offspring of] al-Husain (‘a).” [841]

Suppose John's blood on the ground did boil,
Husain's blood in the hearts did indeed boil.
Should Bucht-Nuzzar of old seek for John revenge?
His justice was indeed fully redressed,
But the blood of the Prophet's grandson shell not
Calm down before al-Qa’im,
By Allah's leave, seeks his revenge.
[842]

Shaikh al-Baha'i has narrated saying that his father, Shaikh Husain Ibn ‘Abd al-amad al-Harithi, entered Kufa's mosque once and found a carnelian stone upon which these lines were written:

I am jewel from the heavens, so scatter me
When the parents of the Prophet's grandson betrothed;
More clear than silver I once used to be
Now my color is that of al-Husain's blood.
[843]

Reference:

Maqtal al-Husain: Martrydom Epic of Imam al-Husain (A) by 'Abd al Razzaq al-Muqarram
Published by: Al-Kharsan Foundation for Publications, Beirut, Lebanon, 1426 AH/2005 AD

Notes:

[806] Excerpted from a poem eulogizing al-Husain (‘a) by the authority Shaikh ‘Abd al-Mun’im al-Farusi.

[807] Shaikh Badr ad-Din Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdullah al-Shibli al-Hanafi (d. 769 A.H./1368 A.D.), Ahkam al-Jan, p. 146. Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 341. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Mujma’ al-Zawa’id, Vol. 9, p. 199. al-Suyyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa', p. 139. Shaikh Muhammad al-Qatari al-Biladi al-Bahrani, Al-Kawakib al-Durriyya, Vol. 1, p. 56.

[808] Ibn Abul-Hadid, Shar Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 1, p. 386 (first Egyptian edition). al-Majlisi, Safinat al-Bihar, Vol. 1, p. 602 (old edition) citing p. 729, Vol. 8, of his other work titled Bihar al-Anwar.

[809] On p. 38, Vol. 3, of his book Al-Kamil, Ibn al-Athir says, “This can be established if we agree that she lived more than fifty years.” Ibn Na’im, as quoted in her biography stated on p. 460, Vol. 4, of Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani's book Al-Isaba, says, “She died in 62 A.H./882 A.D.; she was the last of the mothers of the believers [to die].” According to al-Waqidi, she died in 59 A.H./679 A.D. On p. 362, Vol. 2, of al-Nawawi's Tahthib al-Asma’, Ahmad Ibn Abu Khaythamah is quoted as saying that she died during the reign of Yazid Ibn Mu’awiyah. On p. 137, Vol. 1, of Mir’at al-Jinan, al-Yafi’i, the author, says, “Umm Salamah, mother of the faithful, died in 61 A.H. (681 A.D.).” In his book Al-Bidaya, Ibn Kathir, in agreement with al-Waqidi, says that the above-cited traditions relevant to al-Husain's martyrdom indicate that she lived till after his death. Al-’Ayni, who explains p. 427, Vol. 1, of al-Bukhari'sai, where the latter discusses the qunut, says, “Umm Salamah died in Shawwal of 59 A.H. (August of 679 A.D.).” On p. 341, Vol. 4, of Tahthib Tarikh Ibn ‘Asakir, al-Waqidi is quoted as saying that Umm Salamah died three years before al-Husain's martyrdom. In his book Al-Kafi, al-Mufid cites Ahl al-Bayt (‘a) saying that al-Husain (‘a) had entrusted the nation's treasures to her in order to pass them on to Zayn al-’Abidin (‘a). On p. 142, Vol. 2, of al-Thahbi's book Siyar A’lam al-Nubala’, al-Thahbi says, “Umm Salamah, wife of the Messenger of Allah (S), was the last to die from among the mothers of the faithful. She lived till the news of the martyrdom of al-Husain (‘a) reached her. She was shaken, and she fainted. She grieved for him a great deal, remaining only for a short while thereafter before departing to Allah, the most Exalted One.” On p. 146 of the same book, Shahr is quoted as saying, “I came to Umm Salamah to offer my condolences on the death of al-Husain (‘a).”

[810] Shaikh al-Tusi, Al-Amali, p. 56. According to p. 356, Vol. 2, of Ibn Hajar’s book Tahthib al-Tahthib, p. 148 of al-Tabari's book Thakhair al-’Uqba, p. 139 of al-Suyyuti's book Tarikh al-Khulafa', and p. 213, Vol. 3, of al-Thahbi's book Siyar A’lam al-Nubala', Umm Salamah saw the Messenger of Allah (S) in a vision telling her of the martyrdom of al-Husain (‘a).

[811] al-Yafi’i, Mir'at al-Jinan, Vol. 1, p. 134. Ibn al-Athir, Al-Kamil, Vol. 4, p. 38. al-Khawarizmi, Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 95.

[812] These verses are recorded on p. 341, Vol. 4, of Ibn ‘Asakir's Tarikh.

[813] Reference to these verses is made on p. 341, Vol. 4 of Ibn ‘Asakir's Tarikh, p. 127, Vol. 2, of al-Suyyuti's Khaa’i, and p. 199, Vol. 9, of Mujma’ al-Zawa’id of Ibn Hajar al-Haythami.

[814] Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 340. al-Suyyuti, Al-Khasa’is al-Kubra, Vol. 2, p. 126. al-Suyyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa', p. 139. al-Yafi’i, Mir’at al-Jinan, Vol. 1, p. 134. Ahmad, Musnad, Vol. 1, p. 242. Shaikh Muhammad al-Qatari al-Biladi al-Bahrani, Al-Kawakib al-Durriyya, Vol. 1, p. 56. al-Tabari, Thakha’ir al-’Uqba, p. 148. Ibn Hajar, Tahthib al-Tahthib, Vol. 2, p. 355. Ibn al-Athir, Al-Kamil, Vol. 4, p. 28. Ibn Hajar, Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, p. 116. Tarh al-Tathrib, Vol. 1, p. 22. al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh, Vol. 1, p. 142. al-Maqrizi, Khutat, Vol. 2, p. 285. al-Khawarizmi, Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 94, chapter 12. al-Thahbi, Siyar A’lam al-Nubala', Vol. 3, p. 212.

[815] Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 339. al-Suyyuti, Al-Khasa’is al-Kubra, Vol. 2, p. 126. Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, p. 116. al-Maqrizi, Khutat, Vol. 2, p. 289. Ibn al-Jawzi, the grandson, Tathkirat al-Khawa, p. 155. al-Khawarizmi, Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 90. A non-Imamite ought not doubt this fact especially once he reads on p. 114, Vol. 6, of al-Qastalani's book Irshad al-Sari fi Shar al-Bukhari, that the earth was pitched in the dark upon the death of ‘Umar [Ibn al-Khattab] ...!!!

[816] al-Shabrawi, Al-Ithaf bi hHubbil-Ashraf, p. 24. Ibn Hajar, Tahthib al-Tahthib, Vol. 2, p. 354. Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 339. Nobody can find it objectionable in the light of what is recorded by Ibn al-Jawzi on p. 244, Vol. 7, of his book Al-Muntazim, in the events of August of 399 A.H./1009 A.D. He narrates saying, “Pilgrims who visited al-Tha’labiyya were hit by a black wind that darkened their daytime, leaving them unable to see one another.”

[817] Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, p. 116.al-Shabrawi,  Al-Ithaf, p. 24.

[818] Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, Tahthib al-Tahthib, Vol. 1, p. 354. Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, p. 116. Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 339. Tarikh al-Khulafa', p. 138. Shaikh Muhammad ‘Ali Ibn Ghanim al-Qatari al-Biladi al-Bahrani, Al-Kawakib al-Durriyya, Vol. 1, p. 56.

[819] al-Shabrawi, Al-Ithaf bi Hubbil-Ashraf, p. 24. Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, p. 116. Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 339. Tarikh al-Khulafaa', p. 138. Shaikh Muhammad al-Qatari al-Biladi al-Bahrani, Al-Kawakib al-Durriyya, Vol. 1, p. 56.

[820] Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Mujma’ al-Zawa’id, Vol. 9, p. 197. Tarikh al-Khulafa, p. 138. Shaikh Muhammad al-Qadari al-Biladi al-Bahrani, Al-Kawakib al-Durriyya, Vol. 1, p. 56. Nobody should find this strange; the sun was eclipsed when Ibrahim son of the Messenger of Allah (S) died as stated on p. 212, Vol. 3, of al-Zarqani's book Shar al-Mawahib al-Laduniyya, by al-Jazri on p. 39, Vol. 1, of his book Usd al-Ghabah, and by al-’Ayni on p. 472, Vol. 3, of his book ‘Umdat al-Qari fi Shar al-Bukhari in a chapter about how to perform the eclipse prayers.

[821] Ibn Qawlawayh, Kamil al-Ziyarat, p. 77. This is the same as our statement saying that it was pitch dark for three days.

[822] al-Rawindi, Al-Khara’ij, p. 64 (Indian edition), where the miracles of Imam al-Hasan al-’Askari (‘a), are discussed.

[823] Excerpted from a poem by Shaikh Muhammad son of Sharif son of Falah al-Kaďimi, author of the Karrari poem in praise of the Commander of the Faithful which he had written in 1166 A.H./1753 A.D. and which eighteen of his contemporary poets critiqued. This one totals 39 lines as compiled by the authority al-Amini, author of Al-Ghadir.

[824] Ibn Qawlawayh, Kamil al-Ziyarat, p. 80.

[825]Al-Khasa’is al-Kubra, Vol. 2, p. 126. Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 339.Ibn al-Jawzi, the grandson, Tathkirat al-Khawa, p. 155. al-Khawarizmi, Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 89. al-Maqrizi, Khutat, Vol. 2, p. 989. al-Shabrawi, Al-Ithaf bi hHubbil-Ashraf, p. 255. Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, p. 116. Ibn Shahr Ashub (d. 588 A.H./1192 A.D.), Al-Manaqib, Vol. 2, pp. 206 and 182. The heavens raining blood is mentioned by Ibn al-Athir on p. 29, Vol. 7, of his book Al-Kamil where the events of the year 246 A.H./860 A.D. are discussed. Al-Nujum al-Zahira, Vol. 2, p. 322. al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-’Ummal, Vol. 4, p. 291.

[826]Al-Khasa’is al-Kubra, Vol. 2, p. 126.

[827] Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 339. Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, p. 116.

[828] Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 339. Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, p. 116.

[829] Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Mujma’ al-Zawa’id, Vol. 9, p. 196. Al-Khasa’is al-Kubra, Vol. 2, p. 125. al-Suyyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa’, p. 138. Sayyid Muhammad Riďa al-Asterbadi al-Hilli, Al-’Iqd al-Farid, Vol. 2, p. 315. Shaikh Muhammad al-Qatari al-Biladi al-Bahrani, Al-Kawakib al-Durriyya, Vol. 1, p. 56. al-Khawarizmi, Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 90.

[830] Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 339. Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, p. 116.

[831] Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Mujma’ al-Zawa’id, Vol. 9, p. 196. Ibn al-Athir, Al-Kamil, Vol. 4, p. 103. al-Khawarizmi, Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 87. al-Turayhi, Al-Muntakhab, p. 338.

[832]Shar Qaidat Abi Firas, p. 149.

[833] Ibn al-Athir, Al-Kamil, Vol. 6, p. 37. Shaikh Muhammad al-Qatari al-Biladi al-Bahrani, Al-Kawakib al-Durriyya, Vol. 1, p. 56. Ibn al-Jawzi, the grandson, Tathkirat al-Khawa, p. 155.

[834] On pp. 588-590 of my book titled Allah: The Concept of God in Islam (Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran: Ansariyan Publications, 1997), as well as on the preceding pages, I provided more details about this miracle. N. Tr.

[835] This poem is cited on p. 100, Vol. 2, of al-Khawarizmi's book Maqtal al-Husain.

[836] This poem is recorded on p. 380, Vol. 2, of Ibn Shahr Ashub's book Al-Manaqib.

[837]Al-Khasa’is al-Kubra, Vol. 2, p. 126. Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 339. Tahthib al-Thahthib, Vol. 2, p. 354. Majma’ al-Zawa’id, Vol. 9, p. 96. Shaikh Muhammad al-Qatari al-Biladi al-Bahrani, Al-Kawakib al-Durriyya, Vol. 1, p. 56. al-Khawarizmi, Maqtal al-Husain, Vol. 2, p. 90.

[838] Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, p. 116.

[839]Ibn al-Jawzi, the grandson, Tathkirat al-Khawa, p. 154. Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, p. 116.

[840] Ibn Qawlawayh, Kamil al-Ziyarat.

[841] as-Saduq, Man la Yauruhu al-Faqih, p. 148.

[842] Excerpted from a poem by the ‘Allama Shaikh Muhammad Taqi al-Jawhari.

[843] Excerpted from a poem recorded on p. 17 of the Indian edition of the Kashkul of Shaikh Yousuf al-Bahrani.

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