بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Monday, 21st August 2017

Articles

Shahadat of Imam Musa al-Kadhim [as]

Birth 7th Safar 128 AH in Abwa
Titles Al-Kadhim, Babul Hawaaij
Death 25th Rajab 183 AH Baghdad (Buried in Kadhmain)

kadhmain

A glimpse at the Babul Hawaij - Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A)

Imam Musal al-Kadhim (A) was such a blessed personality, that whosoever took his name as a wasila, they found that all their Dua were accepted. It is for this reason, that the people of Iraq referred to him as Baabul Hawaaij (The Door at which all their problems were answered).  It was widely known that Imam Musa Ibn Ja’afar had been given powers of healing. Once he was passing by a house and heard little children weeping. He enquired as to why they were crying. He was told that they were orphans and their mother had just died and now they had no one to look after them. He went inside the house, made two prostrations and prayed to God for her life. Moments later the woman stood up well and in good health. People who saw this and cried out, "Behold it is Jesus son of Mary."

The Imam (A) who attracted the hearts of people

Despite the relatively brief contact he had with his followers, Imam al-Kazim (A) was held in very high esteem by the Muslims and his traditions are found in many Sunni works (Sunan Tirmidhi, Musnad ibn Hanbal, Sunan ibn Maja)in addition to Shi‟a works.

He is frequently compared to Imam Sajjad (A) in terms of his continuous acts of supplication and devotion – he is called al-Abd al-Salih. He not only transmitted hadith, he also interacted with Sufis – all Sufi lineages of course go back to Imam al-Sadiq (A) and nearly all to Imam Ali (A).

On an occasion when the Abbaside Caliph, Harun al-Rashid arrived at Medina, he went to pay a visitation to (the tomb of) the Prophet (S) The people went with him. Al-Rashid went forward to the tomb of the Apostle of God (S) and said: "Greetings to you, Apostle of God! Greetings to you, cousin".  He was seeking to show his proud position over the others by that. But then the 7th Imam (A) went forward to the tomb and said: "Greetings to you, Apostle of God! Greetings to you, father." (The expression on) al-Rashid's face changed and the anger in it became transparently obvious.

In 793 Harun Rashid, went for the Hajj. He had Imam (A) arrested at night and sent to Basra, while also sending a decoy caravan elsewhere to fool the Shi‟a. After a year, Haroon instructed the governor in Basra to put the Imam (A) to death. The governor, was reluctant, saying that he had not observed any treasonable political activity on the part of the Imam (A); in fact while he had been in his care, he had observed the Imam (A) busy only in acts of devotion and scholarship. He further wrote that he was unwilling to bear the responsibility of detaining the Imam (A) any longer.

Haroon therefore removed the Imam (A) from Basra and had him taken to Baghdad, where he was imprisoned in a succession of different houses. Imam‟s (A) conduct throughout was such that he was able to incline the hearts of his various jailors towards him, to a point where Haroon had one of them publicly whipped for his supposed treachery to the caliphate.

The 7th Imam (A) setting the foundations for the great Uleamaa of today

The Holy Imam (A) has emphasized how important it is to keep close relation with the Ulemaa: “It is better to talk with an ‘Alim’ near a garbage heap than talking with an illiterate man sitting on a soft carpet”

From the time of the 6th Imam al-Sadiq (A), the Imams (A) appointed their representatives (wakil/wukala) in the lands where their followers existed. These agents collected and forwarded khums, organized the judicial systems (were the Hakim of the area), and acting as couriers of information to and from the Imam (A). Their positions later became very important as the Imams (A) were increasingly confined by the rulers, and truly the 7th Imam (A) was very often captured and sent to jail or kept under house arrest.

Imam Musa al-Kadhim (A)’s lineage was very prosperous – many past and contemporary scholars are Syed Al-Musawis, e.g  Syed Khui (R) and Imam Khomeini (R)

7th Imam (A)’s kindness and view of equality

One day 7th Imam, Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) was passing by the tent of a Nomad who was a black man. Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) went up to him and said "Salam Alaikum", in a warm and friendly manner.

Upon leaving Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) said good-bye to him in a very kind manner with these words: "If there is anything I can do for you, I'm more than willing to do it".

One of the followers of 7th Imam, Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) who saw this attitude said "Is it suitable for you, the son of the messenger of Allah, to sit and talk with a man of no reputation and make such an offer as: If you need me in any work, I'm more than willing to do it? Is it right for a man of great dignity to talk to a man like that?"

7th Imam, Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) replied, "This is one of Allah's creatures. Allah has created all men equal. Besides, as a Muslim, he is our brother in faith. After all, life does not remain the same forever. One who needs help today may be the one who will be able to help us tomorrow when we'll need help! If we don't pay any attention to him today, one day when we may need him we will be embarrassed to ask him for help".

One State official of Madina was a persistent source of harassment to the Imam. He even used abusive language regarding Imam Ali (A). But our 7th Imam always directed his followers not to retaliate in the same abusive manner. When his mal manner became too rude to be tolerated, Imam’s followers wanted to punish the rude man, but Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) would not allow them to. Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) told them that he himself would teach this man a lesson.  One day Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) rode out to the rude man's farm where the man was working. When the man saw Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) he stopped working and put his hands on his hips, ready to be abusive again.

Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) dismounted went towards the man and greeted him with a friendly, smiling face. Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) then told him that he should not overwork himself and that the land he had was very good. He then asked him how much he was expecting to receive for the crop.

The farmer was amazed at Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) politeness and sincerity, he waited a little then said that he was expecting to get around 200 gold pieces. Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) took out a purse and gave it to the farmer telling him that in it was 300 gold pieces, more than the value of his crop. Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) told the man to take the money and also to keep the crop, and that he hoped the man would receive more for it.

The farmer faced with such kind behavior and good manner (Akhlaq), was very ashamed of himself and asked Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) for forgiveness.  After that when ever the man would see Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (A) he would greet him very politely. Imam Musa Al-Kadhim's (A) friends were very surprised!

The last imprisonment and martyrdom of the Imam (A)

As to what may have led to his final imprisonment, we find that it is stated by Al-Fakhri that there were some of the relatives of Musa Ibn J’afar who were envious of him and carried false reports about him to Al-Rashid, saying, “The people paying him the Khums, or one fifth of the property, are accepting the Imamat and he is about to revolt against you”. They brought this report to Al-Rashid so frequently that it made him anxious and agitated. He gave the accuser some money to keep bringing him more information. But it is related through authentic sources that this relative of the Imam did not have the chance of enjoying that reward for espionage, for as soon as he reached Madinah, he suffered a serious illness and died from it. It was in that year that Al-Rashid went on the pilgrimage, and when he arrived in Madina, he arrested the Imam Musa Ibn Ja’afar, brought him to Baghdad and imprisoned him under the care of al-Sindi ibn Shahik. (Al-Fakhri-Ibnul Tiktika). This agrees with Majlisi’s comment in Bihar al Anwar that “Harun took him from Madina ten days from the end of the month of Shawwal 177 Hijiri. Then Harun set out for Makka and took the Imam with him when he returned to Basra and had him imprisoned with Issa. About one year later he was taken out of the Basran prison and taken to Baghdad. He was put in prison there under the watchful eye of the most cruel person named al-Sindi. Majlisi goes on to say that the Imam died in his prison and was buried in the cemetery of Qoraish on the south side of Baghdad.

Al-Fakhri adds,” Al-Rashid was at Rakka and sent orders that he should be put to death. They then brought a number of so called reputable men to Karkh to act as coroners and to testify publicly that the Imam died a natural death. The place he was buried was a cemetery of the Qoraish. But soon this place became the focus of pilgrimage on the grave of the Imam. A town grew around the grave yard. The name of the town became Kazimiya, the town of the Imam Kazim (A) A reputed school of theology was founded in this town which is still a source of learning for many students from all over the world.

Golden Sayings of the 7th Imam (A)

If there is a walnut in your hand and people say that it is a pearl, their saying will not benefit you in any way when you know that it is actually a walnut. And if there is a pearl in your hand and people say that it is a walnut, their saying will not harm you in any way when you know that it is actually a pearl."

"Indeed cultivation and growth takes shape in a soft, even land and not in a rocky (barren) land. Likewise, wisdom grows and develops in a humble heart and not in a proud, vain and arrogant heart."


References:
Kitab al-Irshaad (Sheikh Mufid)
Story of the Holy Ka’aba And its People  (S.M.R. Shabbar)
www.ezsoftech.com/stories/imamkazim1.asp
MODULE: LIFE OF THE IMAMS (A) – HAWZA OF LONDON – 2008  (AJ/ HL/Jan 2008)

Source: www.hujjat.org

Dua for month of Rajab

The following du`a is recommended after the daily obligatory prayers. The du`a, according to Shaykh Abbas Qummi in MafateeHul Jinaan has been taught by Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq (A).

Bismillahir-raHmaanir-raHeem.
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Allahumma Swalli `alaa muHammadinw wa-aali muHammad.
O Allah, bless Muhammad and his household.

Yaa man arjoohoo likulli khayr
O He from whom I can hope for all goodness

Wa-aamanu sakhaTahoo `inda kulli sharr
And I am safe from His anger at every evil.

Yaa manyu`Til-katheera bil-kaleel
O He who gives a lot in exchange of a little.

Yaa manyu`Tee man sa-alah
O He who gives to one who asks Him.

Yaa manyu`Tee man lam yas-alhu wa-mal-lam ya`rifhu taHannunam minhu waraHmah
O He who gives to one who does not ask Him and does not know Him, Out of His affection and mercy.

A`tinee bimasalatee iyyaak
Give me, for my request is only to You alone,

Jamee`a khayrid-dunyaa wajamee`a khayril-aakhirah
All the good of this world and all the good of the Hereafter.

WaSrif `annee bimas-alatee iyyaak
Keep away from me, for my request is only to You alone,

Jamee`a sharrid-dunyaa washarril aakhirah
All the evil of this world and the evil of the Hereafter.

Fainnahoo ghayru manqooSin maa a`Tayt
For indeed it is not diminishing what is given by You.

Wazidnee min faDhlika yaa Kareem
Increase (for) me from Your bounty, O The Generous.

(Then the 6th Imam held his beard in his left hand and gave a movement to the index finger in his right hand saying:)

Yaa dhaljalaali walikraam
O The Sublime and The Distinguished,

Yadhanni`maai waljood
O The Bountiful and The Magnanimous,

Yadhal-manni waTTawl
O the Gracious and the Mighty,

Harrim shaybatee `alan-naar.
Save my grey hairs from the fire (of Hell)

Source: www.hujjat.org

Prophet Muhammad [SAWW]

muhammed

Muhammad (s.a.w) was born in such a family on Friday, the 17th Rabi'-ul-Awwal, 1st year of 'Amul-Fil (corresponding to 570 C.E.) to bring the Message of God to the world. In Sunni circles, 12th Rabi'-ul-Awwal is more famous. Thus, the prayer of Ibrahim while constructing the Ka'bah was granted:

Lord! And raise a Messenger from among them who shall recite to them Thine verses, and teach them the Book and the wisdom, and purify them, indeed Thou art the Mighty, the Wise (Qur'an, 2:129).

And the tidings of Christ came true:-

O Children of Israel! Surely, I am the messenger of Allah to you, verifying that which is before me of the Torah and giving the good news of a Messenger who will come after me whose name will be Ahmed. (Qur'an, 61:6)

'Abdullah, father of the Prophet, died a few month before (or two months after) his birth, and his grandfather 'Abdul­Muttalib took over the care and upbringing of the child. After a few months, according to the age-long custom of the Arabs, the child was entrusted to a bedouin woman Halimah by name, of the tribe of Bani-Sa'd, for his upbringing.

When he was only six years old, he lost his mother as well; so, the doubly-orphaned child was brought up by 'Abdul-Muttalib with the most tender care. It was the will of God that the Prophet to-be should undergo all the sufferings, pains and privations incidental to human life in order that he might learn to bear them with becoming fortitude and raise his stature in human perfection. Not two years had passed before 'Abdul-Muttalib also expired.

'Abdul-Muttalib died at the age of 82, leaving the care and custody of the orphaned Muhammad (s.a.w) to Abu Talib. Abu Talib and his wife, Fatimah Bint Asad, loved Muhammad more than their own children. As the Holy Prophet himself said, Fatima Bint Asad was his "mother" who kept her own children waiting while she fed the Holy Prophet, kept her own children cold while she gave him warm clothes. Abu Talib always kept the child with him day and night.

Abu Talib had succeeded 'Abdul-Muttalib in Siqayah and Rifadah and was an active participant in the trade caravans. When Muhammad (s.a.w) was 12 years old, Abu Talib bade farewell to his family to go to Syria. Muhammad (s.a.w) clung to him and cried. Abu Talib was so moved that he took the child with him. When the caravan reached Busra in Syria they, as usual, stayed near the monastery of a monk, Buhayra. It is not possible to give here the full account of that visit. Suffice it to say that the monk, seeing some of the signs, which he knew from the old books, was convinced that the orphan child was the last Prophet-to-be. To make sure, he started a conversation with him, and at one point said: "I give you oath of Lat and Uzza to tell me..." The child cried out: "Don't take the names of Lat and Uzza before me! I hate them!" Buhayra was now convinced. He advised Abu Talib not to proceed to Damascus "because if the Jews found out what I have seen, I am afraid they will try to harm him. For sure, this child is to have a great eminence."

Abu Talib, acting on this advice, sold all his merchandise for cheaper prices then and there, returning at once to Mecca.

Muhammad (s.a.w) marries Khadijah

Now, Muhammad (s.a.w) was old enough to go with the trade caravans. But Abu Talib's financial position had become very weak because of the expenses of Rifadah and Siqayah, and it was no longer possible for him to equip Muhammad (s.a.w) with the merchandise on his own. He, therefore, advised him to act as agent for a noble lady, Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, who was the wealthiest person in Quraish. It is written that in the trade caravans, her merchandise usually equaled the merchandise of the whole tribe put together.

Her genealogy joins with that of the Holy Prophet at Qusayi. She was Khadijah daughter of Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn 'Abdul-'Uzza ibn Qusayi.

The reputation which Muhammad (s.a.w) enjoyed for his honesty and integrity, led Khadijah to willingly entrust her goods to him for sale in Syria. He traded in such a way that the goods earned more profit than expected, and yet he was praised for his integrity, honesty and generosity. Khadijah was very much impressed. Only two months after his return to Mecca, he was married to Khadijah. He was twenty-five years of age and Khadijah was forty and a widow.

Reconstruction of the Ka'bah

In about 605 A.D., when the Holy Prophet was 35 years old, a flood swept Mecca and the building of the Ka'bah was badly damaged. The Quraish decided to rebuild it. When the walls reached a certain height, a dispute arose between various clans as to whom should the honor of placing the Black Stone (Hajar Aswad) in its place go. This dispute threatened to assume serious proportions but, at last, it was agreed upon that the first person to enter the precincts of the Ka'bah the next morning should arbitrate this issue.

It so happened, that first person was none other than Muhammad (s.a.w). The Quraish were pleased with the turn of the events because Muhammad was well recognized as the Truthful and Trust-worthy personality.

Muhammad (s.a.w) put his own robe on the ground and put the Black Stone on it. He told the disputing clans to send one representative each to hold the corners of the robe and to raise it. When the robe was raised to the required level, he took hold of the Stone and put it in its place. This was a judgement, which settled the dispute to the satisfaction of all the parties.

At this time, he had entered into several business partnerships and always acted with great integrity in his dealings with his partners. 'Abdullah, son of Abu Hamza, narrates that he had entered into a transaction with Muhammad (s.a.w). Its details had yet to be finalized when he had suddenly to leave promising that he would return soon. When, after three days, he went again to the spot, he found Muhammad (s.a.w) waiting for him. Muhammad (s.a.w) did not remonstrate with him. He just said that he had been there for all those three days waiting for him. Saib and Qays, who also had business transactions with him, testify to his exemplary dealings. People were so impressed by his uprightness and integrity, by the purity of his life, his unflinching fidelity, and his strict sense of duty that they called him "al-Amin," the trusted one.

Source: The Life of Muhammad The Prophet by Syed Saeed Akhtar Rizvi 

Source: www.hujjat.org

Rajab - The Month of Allah

rajabThe Holy Prophet (SAW) has said

Rajab is the month of Allah, Sha’ban is my month and Ramadhan is the month of my followers.  Whoever keeps one fast during Rajab becomes entitled to the great pleasure of Allah, the wrath of Allah remains at bay from him and a gate of hell is closed for him.”

The Holy Prophet (SAW) has recommended the recitation of an important prayer, to be performed on the first Thursday of Rajab, which will give us the following benefits:

(i) Forgiveness of major sins

(ii) Safety from troubles of the first night in the grave, and shelter on the day of resurrection, after the Trumpet is blown.
 

The Holy Prophet (SAW) has also said that Rajab is the name of a river in heaven with water whiter than milk and sweeter than honey and whoever keeps one fast in the month of Rajab will drink from that river.

Imam Musa al-Kadhim (A) has said that whoever keeps one fast in the month of Rajab will be at a distant from the fire of Hell as would take one year’s journey to reach and whoever keeps three fasts becomes entitled to heaven.

Imam Jaffer As-Sadiq (A) has stated that the Holy Prophet (SAW) has said that Rajab is the month for seeking forgiveness of Allah and so the followers should be engrossed in prayer during that month as Allah is Merciful and Forgiving.

Common Amaal for the month of Rajab

General
To fast for 4 days is beneficial to save oneself from punishment in the grave.
Whoever fasts for six days in Rajab will find peace in Qiyamat and walk over the Pul-e-siraat easily without accounting.

1st of Rajab
Recite 10 Rakat Salaat on the 1st of Rajab such that in every Rakat after Surah al Hamd, recite Surah Tawheed 3 times. A person who prays this Namaaz will be saved from the squeeze of the grave.

Lailatul Raghaib & first Thursday of Rajab
It is related that the person who recites Surah-al Yaseen before going to bed and Salaatul Lailatul Raghaib will be saved from the terror of the grave. The first Thursday night of Rajab is known as Lailatul Raghaib. The Holy Prophet (SAW) used to fast on the first Thursday and between Maghrib and Isha, recite 12 Rakat salaat in six sets of 2 units.

In every Rakat after surah al Hamd recite 3 times Surah al-Qadr and 12 times Surah Ikhlas.

After salam recite 70 times: Allahumma s’ale a’laa muh’ammadin nabiyyil ummi wa a’laa aaleh.

Then go into sajdah and recite 70 times: Subbuh’un quddoos rabbul malaaaekate war-rooh’

Then sit up and say 70 times: Rabbighfir war-ham watajaawaz a’mma ta’lamo innaka antal a’liyyul a’zeem.

Then go into sajdah and say 70 times: Subbooh’un quddoos rabbul malaaekate war-rooh’.

Night of 7th Rajab
The Holy Prophet (SAW) says that if a person recites a 4 unit Salaat on the night of 7thRajab, (such that in each unit after Surah al Hamd recites Surat at Tawheed thrice, Surah al Falaq once, Surah an Naas once. After finishing namaaz recites Salwaat and 10 times Tasbeehate Arba’), Allah will offer him shelter under the Arsh and give him reward of a person fasting in the month of Ramdhan. Allah will ease the pangs of death on him and save him from squeezing in the grave. He will not die unless he sees his place in Paradise, and will be safe from the hardships of Qiyamat.

Middle of month and the nights of 16th & 17th Rajab
To recite 30 Rakat Salaat in the middle part of the month such that in each rakat after Surah al Hamd recite Sura Tawheed 10 times is beneficial to save oneself from punishment in the grave. In the same manner to recite the above Salaat on the nights of 16th and 17th Rajab is also beneficial

22nd Rajab
To recite the following 8 Rakat Salaat on the 22ndof Rajab is beneficial during death. In each Rakat after al Hamd , recite Surah Tawheed 7 times. After finishing the Salaat, recite salwaat 10 times and recite Astaghfirullah Rabbi wa atooboIlayh 10 times.

24th of Rajab
Fasting on the 24th of Rajab carries great reward. One of its merits is that the angel of death comes in the form of a handsome youth carrying a bowl of the pure drink (Sharaabe Tahoora) and offers it to the dying man. The dying person drinks it and dies in peace.

Last day of Rajab.
For the person who fasts on the last day of Rajab, Allah will save him from the after effects of death.

References

www.duas.org

English translation of Manazelul Akherah by Sheikh Abbas Qummi.

Mafatih-ul-Jinan by Sheikh Abbas Qummi (translated by Marhum Murtaza Ahmed Lakha)

Source: www.hujjat.org

Shahadat Imam Hassan [as]

funeral of imam hassan by mustafa20-d5ooqan

When asked what piety is, Imam Hassan (A) replied, "yearning for virtue and not longing for this world."

When asked what generosity is, Imam Hassan (A) replied, "donation before request and feeding people during drought."

When asked what dignity is, Imam Hassan (A) replied, "agreeing with friends and maintaining good neighbourly relations."

 

 

Imam Hassan's (A) Caliphate

On the 21st night of the Ramadan of 40th Hijra his father Hazrat Ali ibn-e-Abi Talib (A) passed away making all the people sorrowful and grieved. Imam Hassan (A) who was 27 years of age came along with the people to the mosque and climbed the tribune and said, "Last night, a man, who was unique in knowledge piety, conduct and character among the previous ages people as well those to come in future, has gone out of you. He participated the battles along with the Prophet Muhammad (saw) and strived hard to guard Islam. A person who was the thorn of the eyes of the enemies and the fruit of the heart of friends. And he did not spare and accumulate anything from the wealth of the world for himself, except for seven hundred Dirhams by which he wanted to provide a servant for his family."

At this moment, the Imam (A) wept bitterly and the people too wept. Then he spoke about himself. So that the people may know that the Imamate has been handed over to him and that people might not go astray and did not get misled. He said, "I am the son of the Prophet Muhammad (saw), Ali (A) and Fatima (A). I am the flame of the lighted lamp of Prophet hood. The families from which God has driven the dirt, contamination and pollution away.

Then Abdullah Ibn-e-Abbas stood up and said "Oh people this is the son of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) and your Imam, beware, that he is the right heir and successor of Hazrat Ali (a.s.). So take the oath of allegiance and loyalty for him".

People moved in shape of groups towards Imam Hassan (A) and took the oath of allegiance for him. Imam Hassan (A) made it a condition that they would fight anyone against whom he fought and whenever he deemed it fit to make peace, they would also accept it. All of them accepted it, and willingly agreed and submitted to his Imamate.

The Conspiracies of Muawiyah


Muawiyah had established a government and dominion in Syria and for years he had played tricks with cunning ways and means against Hazrat Ali (A). He killed the friends of Hazrat Ali (A) and brought into existence the perverted group and sect of Khwaraj Now, when he heard that people, after the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali (A), took oath of allegiance to elect Imam Hassan (A) for the caliphate post as the successor of the Prophet Muhammad (saw). This thing was very hard for him to tolerate. He sent spies to Kufa and Basra to find out and get him informed about what was going on. And thereafter, they may plot and hatch conspiracies against Imam (A) if they deem fit and suitable they might start subversion and sabotage and create chaos, and disorder.

Imam Hassan (A) gave the order that the spies should be arrested and killed. Then he wrote a letter to Muawiyah: "Oh Muawiyah! You send spies and set your hands upon subversion? I presume that you intend to fight a war and you like war. If it is so, then I am also ready for it and the war is at hand. Do wait "Insha Allah".

Muawiyah! I am surprised over you that you are the candidate for a job, which you don't deserve and are not worthy for it. Neither you have any superiority in the religion nor you have left any good effect, mark or impression from yourself as a monument and memorial. Muslims have taken oath of allegiance for me (caliphate). It would be to the interest and benefit of Islam that you too accept this act (caliphate) like the rest of the Muslims. Oh Muawiyah! Do not move the untrue and illusive (Batil) ahead, and you also take the oath and allegiance of faithfulness to me like the others, and do consider the blood of the Muslims respect worthy. If you do not accept my advice and wish to create disorder and chaos and spill the blood of Muslim I will quickly attack you along with the other Muslims, and will put you on trial.


Muawiyah in reply to the Imam Hassan (A) wrote:

In the same way as Abu Bakr, due to his experience and expertise took the caliphate from Hazrat Ali (A), I am more deserving than you and have more experience and it is better that you be my follower so that you get the caliphate after myself, and I will give you, whatever is the income of Iraq.

Muawiyah not only denied and turned his face from taking the oath of allegiance, he also sent spies to kufa to martyr the Imam Hassan (A). Thus the Imam Hassan (a.s.) was forced to wear armored Jacket under his clothes and then stand for offering the prayers. Once when one of the agents of Muawiyah threw an arrow towards him the arrow got ineffective due to the armored Jacket and so the Imam Hassan (A) remained safe.

War Begins

It did not take long that Muawiyah, on the pretext of bringing into effect Islamic unity, gathered a huge army and mobilized it to fight the Imam in Iraq. When the news of the movement of Muawiyah's army reached the Imam Hassan (A), he invited the people to the mosque. He climbed the tribune and after the praise of God and the salutation to the holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) said, "Muawiyah has moved towards Iraq along with his army. It is your turn to get ready for the war and defend your honor and religion." But those despicable, vanquished and comfort loving people did not give a response to Imam (A). Adi Ibn-e-Hatim stood up from among the people and very sadly addressed them saying, "What kind of people are you. What does this dead silence mean? Why do you not reply to the Imam Hassan (A) and the son of your Prophet Muhammad (saw)? Are you not afraid of subject and suffering? Be afraid of God's anger and torment and chastise and obey the order of your Imam Hassan (A). Get up and manly press your weapon in your hands and defend your honor, respect and religion. So that the God and Imam (A) are pleased with you.

These words alerted a group so they announced their readiness to take part in the battle. Adi Ibn-e-Hatim told the Imam (A), "We are ready and waiting for your order." Imam Hassan (A) said, "I am proceeding towards the Nakheela Camp and whosoever is prepared and willing may go to that place, although I know that you will not practice upon your promise and Muawiyah will deceive you.

Disobeying the Imam Hassan (A)

When Imam Hassan (A) reached most of those who were shouting the slogans of "war", "war" were not present there and had gone back and turned their back upon the promise they had made with him. Because those who had participated were comprised of:

1. Khawarij who had come to fight against Muawiyah and not for the sake of obeying the command of Imam Hassan (A).

2. Those materialist and world adorers and greedy ones who were after the war booty.

3. Those who had participated for the sake of accompanying and following their tribal chiefs and not due to any religious inspiration.

This is the reason Imam Hassan (A) addressed them saying, "You betrayed me, like you had betrayed my father, who was your Imam before me. I don't know whether you will fight siding with Imam or someone who absolutely does not believe in God and His Prophet Muhammad (saw).

Then he selected a man named Hakam as the army commander and put four thousand men under his command so that he moves to the city of Ambaar and stays there and applies restraint to the forces of Muawiyah till getting further orders. But Muawiyah deceived him by giving him money and making false promises. And he joined his army along with his two hundred men.

Imam (A) selected another man from the tribe of Bani Murad as his successor and said, "Although I do not have trust upon you. But this is a trial, you may also proceed."

When Muawiyah came to know about his arrival, he sent his delegates with five thousand Dirhams for him and promised to give him a governorship. He was too deceived by Muawiyah and joined him.

Imam Hassan's (A) Grief

When the news of the joining of tribal chiefs with Muawiyah reached the Imam Hassan (A). He was much affected and shocked and said, "Did I not say several times that you do not have any faithfulness and trustworthiness, and your conduct with me is that of artifice, and cunningness? He then decided to gather an army himself and move. By the efforts of his friends nearly four thousand men gathered. Imam (A) along with "Sabaat" went to Madayan and sent twelve thousand men under the command of Obaidullah bin Abbas and his helper Qais bin Saad, as a file leader and fore runner to meet and resist Muawiyah, so as to test their spirit and strength of devotedness. Muawiyah sent his agents along with one million Dirhams among the forces of Imam Hassan (A) to get Qais deceived but Qais did not yield to his desire and answered them, "tell Muawiyah you cannot take my faith from me and I will not desert and leave Imam by any of your artifices and frauds."

The agents who got disappointed by Qais and went towards the real Commander Obaidullah bin Abbas and lured and deceived him and he along with a group of his followers joined Muawiyah at the nighttime. When the army men of Imam Hassan (A) became commander less, Qais took over the Command and lead the Jamaat prayers. Qais was fighting fiercely and ferociously and had made Muawiyah harassed and fearful. As a result, he sent a few spies among the army men of Qais, so that they may make this propaganda that Imam Hassan (a.s.) has entered into peace treaty with Muawiyah and you are fighting for no reason. By this way Muawiyah succeeded in separating and detaching the group of Khawarij from the Imam's forces and in deceiving them to attack the Imam Hassan (A) and what he desired did materialize.

The Rioter Khawarij

This stupid and silly group did believe in what spies of Muawiyah told them and disobeyed the orders of Imam Hassan (A) and they raised a hew and cry that Imam Hassan (A) had also become an infidel like his father (Maaz-Allah) and had joined hand with Muawiyah. Suddenly, a platoon attacked the tent of Imam Hassan (A) and looted whatever they found, to the extent that they even pulled out the carpet of Imam Hassan (A) from beneath him.

Imam Hassan (A) was forced to leave that place and he rode upon horse and a group of his friends were all around him. One of them (the attackers) rushed out of his hiding place and injured the Imam Hassan (A). Imam Hassan (A) was carried to one of his friend's house and provided medical care and treatment. It came to that, most of his governors, secretly and confidentially, wrote letters to Muawiyah saying we are at your command and disposal as soon as possible come to Iraq, we will arrest the Imam Hassan (A) and hand him over to you. Muawiyah sent all those letters to Imam Hassan (A) along with a covering letter saying, "These people did not remain faithful to your father and they will not remain on your side either. I am ready to sign a pact with you and overlook the war.

Why Imam Hassan (A) accepted the Truce?

The adventurer Khawarij and the dishonest friends of Imam Hassan (A) made it inevitable for the Imam Hassan (A) to accept truce with Muawiyah. But truce did not mean that Imam Hassan (A) colluded and put up with Muawiyah and agreed to his cruel and brutal activities. But it meant to make a no war pact with Muawiyah for a certain period. Because, if Muawiyah became victorious he would had smashed and destroyed all the hopes of Islam and would have destroyed the foundation of Islam and killed all the true Muslims. Besides, the Roman Empire was seeking a chance to attack the Islamic lands, and this mutual difference of Muslims was the best opportunity for it. Thus Imam Hassan (A) who was smoldering with pain spoke to his untrue and unfaithful friends, "I know that you would practice craftiness and artifice, a group who do not have neither shame nor religion have unconditionally handed themselves over to Muawiyah, woe to you, By God, Muawiyah will not fulfill his commitments. I wanted to establish for you the religion of the right but you did not help me. You started moving on the path of opposition and confrontation and committed dishonesty with me, which forced and obliged me to sign the treaty. By God, if I had friends and helpers I would not have surrendered the work to Muawiyah because, I consider the caliphate to be prohibited for Bani Ommayide. You will soon taste the bitterness of the conduct of Muawiyah, day and night. After the Imam Hassan (A) was forced to make truce with Muawiyah, he wrote a letter to him saying, "I wanted to revive the right and put an end to rescinded and vanity and establish the ruler ship of God and the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) but people did not agree and accompany me. Now, I am making a truce with you upon the conditions, which I know that you will not fulfill and comply with. But soon you would repent, but that will be a time when it will not be of benefit to you.

Then, he sent his cousin Abdullah Bin Harris to see Muawiyah so that he should get him committed upon the conditions, which he had presented after a negotiation with him, and write down the agreement, and treaty of truce.

A part of the truce treaty is as under: -

1. The blood of the Shias must remain respect worthy and their rights must not be confiscated and crushed.

2. Filthy language must not be used against Hazrat Ali (A) and his Shias.

3. Muawiyah should practice upon the Book of God (The Quran) and the Sunnah of Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw).

4. The friends and companions of Imam Hassan (A) must remain safe and secure from his mischief's and brutalities wherever they live and no one has the right to resist them.

5. Imam Hassan (A) does not call Muawiyah, Ameerul Momineen and will not take his name in the Khutbas (sermons).

6. Muawiyah must not hand over the caliphate to anybody after himself.

The Breaking of the Pact

After the peace pact was conducted, Muawiyah focused his attention upon Kufa and held the Juma prayer congregation at Nakheela. He evidently and clearly said in his Jumma speach "Oh people I did not fight against you so that you should offer your prayers and keep fast, instead, it was for the reason that I rule over you although you do not like it. I will crush all the conditions of truce pact conducted with Hassan bin Ali (A) under my feet. But the conduct of Muawiyah in certain matters showed that he was strongly embarrassed and harassed due to the influence of Imam Hassan (A) so that sometimes he was obliged to put into practice few of the points of the peace pact.

So that once when Ibn-e-Ziad the governor of Kufa followed and chased (to punish) one of the friends of Imam (A), Imam Hassan (A) wrote about the incident to Muawiyah, who at once reprimanded Ibn-e-Ziad about this event.

Finally Muawiyah Decided to make Yazeed his successor:

But the pact, which he had signed with Imam Hassan (A), stopped him from this act. He decided to poison the Imam Hassan (A) so that the way to the succession of his son Yazeed should become open and clear. And then make the people forcibly take oath of allegiance (for Yazeed's). Therefore, he contacted "Jodah bint Asash" the wife of Imam Hassan (A) and deceived by luring her and sent a poison for her, with the message that if you make your husband take this poison you will get a prize of one hundred thousand Dirhams from me. Besides, I will select you as the wife of Yazeed and you will become the wife of the caliph of Muslims.

The dishonest hand poisoned the Imam's Utensil (food)

Imam Hassan (A), the womanly scruples regarding the money and fame blinded the eyes of the wife of Imam Hassan (A) and made her accept the suggestion of the cunning fox and commit such a dishonesty which history will never forget. Although Imam Hassan (A) had said several times that I will get martyred by my wife. And people had requested him that if it is so then divorce her and turn her out of your house. But Imam Hassan (A) replied, "She has not yet committed any crime and if I turn her out of the house, I would not have done a right thing. Because, she will make this step an excuse and will say, Imam has turned me out of his house without any fault. So that by this means she may cover her crime up and show her work as correct. Beware; Muawiyah will not let me go. If I leave my wife, even then she will not abandon her dishonesty except this that she will carry her program forward under the cover of her being oppressed."

Finally on the 7th day of Safar, 50th Hijrah when the weather was extremely hot and the Imam Hassan (A) was fasting, Jodah bint Asash, poisoned his milk pot and presented to him for breaking the fast.

Imam Hassan (A) drank a portion of the poisonous milk and then addressed her, "Oh the enemy of God and Prophet Muhammad (saw) you have killed me. God kill you. By God, you and Muawiyah both will become abject, despised and helpless." And the same happened as he had foretold, and predicted. Jodah bint Asash was turned out of Muawiyah's court with humility and not very long had passed that she died. And Muawiyah too died of a terrible life taking pain."

Imam Hassan (A) passed away having faced pain and discomfort. And was buried in the graveyard of Baqi in Medina. God and Prophet's blessings be upon his pure soul.

Reference:

An introduction to fourth infallible Hazrat Imam Hassan (AS), http://www.ezsoftech.com/stories

 

Source: www.hujjat.org

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